Basic Interactions Direct Manipulation of graphical objects: The now ubiquitous direct manipulation interface, where visible objects on the screen are directly manipulated with a pointing device, was first demonstrated by Ivan Sutherland in Sketchpad , which was his MIT PhD thesis.
This is simply not true. There are at least three ongoing directions — traditional application of ever-broader and deeper basic theories, development of local, sometimes domain dependent proto-theories within particular design domains, and the use of design rationale as a mediating level of description between basic science and design practice.
Newman, W. There was growing interest in how computers were used to support communication and collaboration, signaling the rise of social and organizational computing.
However, the use of memory may sometimes benefit the user by eliminating the need to reference some type of knowledge in the world e. It was designed by Butler Lampson and Charles Simonyi who had started working on these concepts around while at Berkeley.
Wave 3: Self-expression, social change mid s — s This is a time of self-expression, self-reflection, and social consciousness. Different interactive interfaces are designed those can be used for the cognitive rehabilitations.
Feedback: Loops through the interface that evaluate, moderate, and confirm processes as they pass from the human through the interface to the computer and back. A display should attempt to eliminate resource-demanding cognitive tasks and replace them with simpler perceptual tasks to reduce the use of the user's mental resources.
Top-down processing. Discussion It is clear that all of the most important innovations in Human-Computer Interaction have benefited from research at both corporate research labs and universities, much of it funded by the government.
It is imperative that this research continue and be well-supported. Output: The flow of information that originates in the machine environment.